"Hydrodynamics for Ocean Engineering”
ECN (Nantes, France)

Contacts : P. Ferrant, L. Gentaz

The courses proposed here are dedicated to Hydrodynamics for ships and offshore structures, this means the mathematical models, numerical or experimental methods used to study and evaluate performance, hydrodynamic loads, motions of all floating structures used for maritime transport, production of energy on seas...
The 60 credits at ECN are composed of:
 30 ECTS lectures during the 3^{rd} semester
 30 ECTS Master Thesis and internship during the 4^{th} semester
SEMESTER 3: Lectures (30 credits)
EMSHIP+  SUBJECT NAME 
CREDITS 
M2ECN0  PREREQUISITES (not mandatory lectures) 
0 
M2ECN1  GENERAL CONCEPTS OF HYDRODYNAMICS 
4 
M2ECN2  WATER WAVES AND SEA STATE MODELLING 
4 
M2ECN3  WAVESTRUCTURE INTERACTIONS 
4 
M2ECN4  NUMERICAL HYDRODYNAMICS 
5 
M2ECN5  EXPERIMENTAL HYDRODYNAMICS 
5 
M2ECN6  NAVAL ENGINEERING 
5 
M2ECN7  FRENCH LANGUAGE 
3 
SEMESTER 4: Lectures (30 credits)
Course Code  Course title 
CREDITS 
M2ECN8  Master Thesis and Internship 
30 
The Master thesis is formally under the responsibility of ECN, as ECN delivers his Master specialised in Hydrodynamics for Ocean Engineering (2nd year Master) at the end of the program.
Students can perform their Master thesis in ECN, in a university laboratory, in a private company, in a research centre in France or abroad.
Students can also perform their Master thesis in one of the partners of the EMSHIP consortium (including an internship with one EMSHIP industrial partner).
In all cases, the topic of the Master thesis must be in relation to Ship (free surface) Hydrodynamics and Ocean Engineering and has to be validated by ECN.
The duration of the Master Thesis is six months. Students must write a Master Thesis report and defend their work at the end of their Master Thesis. This defence is organized by ECN.
ECN Teaching team
The ECN teaching team involved in the EMSHIP+ program will be composed initially by :
 Christian BERHAULT, Research Engineer
 Félicien BONNEFOY, Associate Professor
 Isabelle CALMET, Associate Professor, HDR(*)
 Antoine DUCOIN, Associate Professor
 Guillaume DUCROZET, Associate Professor
 Silvia ERTL, Associate Professor
 Pierre FERRANT, Professor
 Lionel GENTAZ, Associate Professor
 Boris HOREL, Research Engineer
 David LE TOUZE, Professor
 Zhe LI, Associate Professor
 JeanMarc ROUSSET, Research Engineer
(*) authorization to lead PhD Thesis in France
Others members of the Laboratory of Research in Hydrodynamics, Energetics and Atmospheric Environment (LHEEA) in ECN or people from other institutions (universities, laboratories, companies) will possibly contribute to the lectures given by ECN.
Full description of lectures – Semester 3 at ECN (30 credits):
Title: PREREQUISITES 0 Credit Ref : EMSHIP+_M2ECN0 Prof : G. DUCROZET, D. LE TOUZE Teaching Period: Sem 3 
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Course contents 1) Objectives To remind basics of Fluid mechanics and mathematics, which are essential for a good understanding of all courses of the semester 2) Content Fluid mechanics:  Continuous media  NavierStokes equations  Dimensional analysis  Kinematics  Calculation of stresses Mathematics for engineers: Short introduction to Matlab computer language with practical classroom 
Learning outcomes of the course To be comfortable with basics of Fluid Mechanics and Mathematics for Engineers 
Prerequisites 
Title: GENERAL CONCEPTS OF HYDRODYNAMICS 4 Credits Ref : EMSHIP+_M2  ECN1 Prof : P. FERRANT, L. GENTAZ, D. LE TOUZE Teaching Period: Sem 3 
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Course contents
1) Objectives The purpose of this course is to give the students a general introduction to hydrodynamics preparing them to take the best out of more focused courses proposed in the sequel of the program. 2) Content Industrial, R&D and research activities connected to free surface hydrodynamics and ocean engineering A state of the art of problems of engineering or applied research where use of Hydrodynamics is required Different classes of approximation used in Hydrodynamics Presentation of different mathematical models which can be used in Hydrodynamics to describe free surface incompressible free surface flows (NavierStokes equations, Euler equations, Laminar and turbulent boundary layer equations, Potential flow model) and main problems of free surface Hydrodynamics for which each model is adapted Introduction to Numerical Simulation Following parts will be described :  Methodology for numerical simulation of a physical problem  Implementation of a numerical method  Pre and posttreatment  Highperformance computing Hydrostatic and Stability of ships and marine structures Intact and damaged stability of floating structures are investigated through theoretical and practical aspects. Computer lab work is done with state of art industry software 3) Recommended Reading

Learning outcomes of the course To know how Hydrodynamics is used today in naval and offshore engineering To be able to define what mathematical model is adapted to a given problem in Hydrodynamics To know fundamental aspects of numerical simulation in Hydrodynamics. To know main parameters used to evaluate hydrostatic stability of a floating body 
Prerequisites Basics of fluid mechanics 
Title: WATER WAVES AND SEA STATES MODELLING 4 credits Ref : EMSHIP+_M2ECN2 Prof : G. DUCROZET, F. BONNEFOY Teaching Period: Sem 3 
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Course contents
1) Objectives This course intends to describe the main source of loading for structures at sea (e.g. marine renewable energy systems), namely ocean waves. This is essential for the design of such structures and is the starting point of all hydrodynamics’ studies (see courses: wavestructure interactions, experimental hydrodynamics, marine renewable energy, etc.). First we give an overview of some of the numerous mathematical models used to represent free surface gravity waves, and the associated underlying flow. The scope is voluntarily restricted to the most useful models generally used by naval engineers and researchers. In a few cases, a deeper theoretical insight is presented in order to allow the students to understand the subtleties of water wave theory. In the second part, the use of the statistical approach is presented, both for the representation of sea states and for the sea structure’s response.
2) Contents Introduction to marine environment Description of the ocean and the different kind of waves existing. Focus on the gravity waves and the processes responsible for their generation. 2h theory Gravity waves modelling Derivation of the governing nonlinear equations and introduction of the multiple scale method to generate particular subset of equations. 2h theory Dispersive waves
4h theory + 2h practical classroom + 4h computer From deep water to shallow water
2h theory Statistical models for wave field description
4h theory + 2h practical classroom + 6h computer Random responses of structures at sea
4h theory + 4h computer 3) Recommended Reading

Learning outcomes of the course What are hypothesis used to defined different wave models which can be found in literature or in marine engineering community ? To be able to calculate and use main parameters of a irregular wave state 
Prerequisites Basics of fluid mechanics (NavierStokes equations, potential flow model, free surface conditions), General concepts of hydrodynamics 
Title: WAVESTRUCTURE INTERACTIONS 5 credits Ref (ECN): EMSHIP+_M2ECN3 Prof : P. FERRANT Teaching Period: Sem 3 
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Course contents 1) Objectives The objective of the first part is to give a complete presentation of the available models for the determination of marine structures response in a seaway, emphasizing the advantages and drawbacks of each approach. A complete presentation of the linearized theory of wavebody interactions, treated in a deterministic sense, is first given. Both frequency domain and time domain approaches are described. Fundamental relations between both solutions are systematically emphasized. High and low frequency second order effects are explained and illustrated. Then, an overview of the available nonlinear theories and numerical models for wavestructure interactions is given. Different levels of approximation are described, from the simple addition of nonlinear hydrostatics to fully nonlinear time domain models. The second part addresses the modelling of mooring systems. Different options in terms of mooring systems and arrangements are presented in order to give students the main information necessary for undertaking a mooring design process. For both parts lectures and seminars are completed by practical exercises based on state of the art software for wavestructure interaction and mooring modelling. 2) Contents Objectives, theoretical framework 1h theory Short review of linear systems theory 1h theory Formulation of the boundary value problem. Linearization 2h theory Frequency domain approach
4h theory + 2h tutorial + 8h practical classroom Time domain approach
2h theory Second order effects
2h theory Introduction to nonlinear models
2h seminar Moorings for marine structure
4h theory + 8h computer lab 3) Recommended Reading

Learning outcomes of the course To know hypothesis and limitations of seakeeping study done with a linearized potential flow model; To be able to calculate and use basic results (added mass, radiation damping, excitation forces, drift, RAOs) obtained with a software simulating seakeeping in potential flow theory and frequency domain approach 
Prerequisites : Elements on water waves modeling given in the “Water Waves and Sea States Modelling” lecture described before will be useful here. 
Title: NUMERICAL HYDRODYNAMICS 5 credits Ref : EMSHIP+_M2ECN4 Prof : D. LE TOUZE, L. GENTAZ, Z. LI Teaching Period: sem 3


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Course contents 1) Objectives The goal of this class is to provide students with an overview of the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) methods and simulation environment for the computation freesurface unsteady flows of ocean engineering. The different methods rely on different physical approximations of the wavestructure interaction problem. The latter approximations are based upon the spacetime scales (from hours and km² to seconds and m²) at stake and the engineering objective at aim (energy convertion quantification, design for standard operation, extreme condition design, maintenance operations, etc.). According to the approximations made, different numerical methods can be developed. The primary objective is that students gain a clear vision of the use of the different approximations and methods, and of their respective range of application, computational cost, human and resource cost of use, versatility, limitations, ease of use, space discretization (mesh), etc. The methods reviewed range from potential flow theory ones (BEM: Boundary Element Method, HOS: HighOrder Spectral), to full description of the NavierStokes equations (FD: Finite Differences, FD: Finite Volumes, FE: Finite Elements) associated with interface models (VoF: Volume of Fluid, LS: Level Set). For each method, the mathematical model, discretization and implementation principles are explained. Turbulence modeling principles (RANS: Reynolds Averaged NavierStokes, LES: LargeEddy Simulation, hybrid RANS/LES) are provided. The link with the space discretization (structured surfacic meshes, unstructured volumic meshes, meshless...) is detailed. Numerical properties (convergence, stability, consistency) are reviewed. Finally, the links between the numerical method and the current simulation environment are developed: existing commercial software, human and computational resources, choice of software depending on the targetted problem, link with hardware (HighPerformance Computing, cloud resources)... Practical projects using software based on different methods studied in courses (BEM, FV...) are proposed to students with use of commercial software or software developed in Ecole Centrale de Nantes. In other lab works students will have to implement their own simple numerical model.
2) Contents Knowledge and understanding of potential flow solvers Potential flow methods (BEM), Integral methods solving, Surfacic meshing, Hydrodynamic loading calculation 4h theory + 2h tutorials Numerical methods for free surface flows Volumic discretization methods (FD, FV), Time integration and stability, Interface methods (VoF, LS), Turbulence models (RANS, LES) 4h theory + 2h tutorials NavierStokes equations solution techniques Pressurevelocity coupling, Linear system solving, Volumic meshing Hydrodynamic loading calculation 4h theory + 2h tutorials + 14h computer lab work 3) Recommended Reading


Learning outcomes of the course To know different numerical methods which are existing, their capacities and their limitations and drawbacks.


Prerequisites : Basics of Fluid mechanics and numerical analysis 

Title: EXPERIMENTAL HYDRODYNAMICS 5 credits Ref : EMSHIP+_M2  ECN5 Prof :F. BONNEFOY Teaching Period: sem 3 
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Course contents 1) Objectives To provide students with state of the art knowledge on experimental fluid dynamics in the field of Offshore renewable energy. Despite the development of numerical modelling, the experimental approach remains a major source of knowledge development in ship hydrodynamics and marine renewable energy. The contribution to the selection of adequate hypothesis and to the validation of analytical or numerical models is of primary importance. In numerous situations, the experimental approach remains the most reliable, economical and fast way to validate new designs. Specific instrumentations and facilities are presented in this course and used in lab work.
2) Contents Introduction to experimental hydrodynamics The students find the main topics in MRE experiments. Static vs perturbation approaches are presented. 2h theory + 1h visit of ECN experimental facilities Experimental ocean engineering Experimental tests in offshore basins. 3h theory + 8h practical classroom Resistance Ship resistance and experiments in towing tanks. Reynolds and Froude similitude; extrapolation at full scale. 2h theory + 4h practical classroom Ship manoeuvrability Mathematical formulation, experimental determination of hydrodynamic coefficients. Modelling of towed structures. 2h theory + 4h practical classroom Measurements and signal processing Sensors and transducers, sampling theory. Signal processing, Fourier analysis. 2h theory + 4h practical classroom 
Learning outcomes of the course The purpose is to give elements to students about capacities in experimental hydrodynamics, what phenomena can be studied, what measurements can be obtained … 
Prerequisites : Water Waves and Sea States Modelling WaveStructure interactions Numerical Hydrodynamics 
Title: NAVAL ENGINEERING 5 credits Ref : EMSHIP+_M2ECN6 Prof : Z. LI, F. BONNEFOY, L. GENTAZ Teaching Period: sem 3 
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Course contents 1) Objectives This course is divided into three main parts which are all oriented towards fundamental knowledge about ship design. The students learn about ship manoeuvrability, optimization and computational fluid dynamics.
Direct applications of the concepts introduced in Numerical hydrodynamics and Wavestructure interactions course.
In manoeuvrability, the students learn how to use the mathematical formulation and the analytical resolution of the linearized problem in simple examples such as turning circles. Realistic configurations are then studied by means of numerical simulations of the nonlinear problem. In optimization, the multiobjective approach is used through various examples in naval applications.Different algorithms are presented (gradient, genetic…) and the ModeFrontier software is applied to optimize the bulb of a ship in order to minimize the wave resistance. In CFD, the knowledge seen in the Numerical hydrodynamics course is applied to the simulation of a ship with forward speed. More precisely lectures are organized following description given below : Manoeuvrability  introduction The students discover the basics of manoeuvrability : hydrodynamic loads on the hull, propeller loads, rudder action… The mathematical framework is presented to express the problem in the ship reference frame. 2h theory + 4 h tutorials Experimental manoeuvrability Experimental tests at seas (full scale) and in basins (model scale). 2h theory Computational manoeuvrability Presentation of the state of the art in terms of numerical computations of manoeuvring performance of ships Numerical modelling of turning circle problem 2h theory + 4h computer classroom Optimization – basics. Presentation of two typical optimization methods: the geometrical method and the gradientbased method. The students learn how to use the software ModeFrontier with some simple examples. 2h theory + 4h computer classroom Optimization – advanced Presentation of the genetic optimization method. The students will use ModeFrontier to optimize the shape of the bulbous bow in order to minimize the resistance exerted to the ship. 2h theory + 6h computer classroom on ship resistance and bulb optimization CFD The students use the software StarCCM+ (solving NavierStokes equations for a viscous flow) to build a simulation of a practical case of a ship advancing in calm water 4h computer classroom on ship resistance 
Learning outcomes of the course To know theory and principles of numerical modelling for the problem of maneuverability To be able to use an optimization software for a practical case of hull optimization To be able to use a viscous flow CFD software for a practical case of calculation of the drag of a ship advancing in calm water 
Prerequisites : All courses attended previously during the semester at ECN 
Title: FRENCH LANGUAGE 3 credits Ref : EMSHIP+_M2  ECN7 Prof : S. ERTL Teaching Period: sem 3 
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Course contents 1) Objectives The objective is to familiarise the learner with the French language and French culture through an entertaining taskbased communicative language teaching, focused on speaking combined with
Course objectives include the acquisition and reinforcement of vocabulary, syntax, and pronunciation by both traditional means and through the use of digital resources. Allow students to learn general french, develop language skills of oral and written comprehension and expression. 2) Contents Giving and obtaining factual information
Establishing and maintaining social and professional contacts, particularly
 personal life and circumstances  living conditions and environment  educational/occupational activities and interests  leisure activities and social life Carrying out certain transactions
 travel  accommodation  appointments  leisure activities

Learning outcomes of the course After completing this course, the students will be able to communicate in spoken and written French, in a simple but clear manner on familiar topics in the context of study, hobbies etc. Another important goal of this course is to introduce to French culture. At the end of the course, the complete beginners can achieve the level A1 and some aspects of A2 of The Common European Framework of Reference for Languages. More advanced students may aim the levels B1/B2. 
Prerequisites : 